Blue Ocean Institute

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All Staff Publications:

Please see below for our most recent publications. Scroll down for Magazine & Newspaper Articles, Scientific Papers & Reports, and Book Chapters.


Book Chapters:


Safina, C, and D. Preble.  2002.  A Rising Tide for Ethics.  In: S. Kellert, ed., The Good In Nature and Humanity. Island Press, Washington, DC.


Safina, C.  2003.  Foreword to The New Edition of The Sea Around Us, by Rachel Carson. Oxford University Press.


Safina, C.  2003.  Foreword to The Last Great Sea, by T. Glavin. Greystone, Vancouver, Canada.


Gilman, E.L. 2004. Catch Fish Not Turtles Using Pelagic Longlines. Educational booklet. Blue Ocean Institute, United Nations Environment Programme, U.S. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council, World Wildlife Fund, Indian Ocean – South-East Asian Marine TurtleMoUSecretariat. Honolulu, HI.

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Safina, C.  2005.  Introduction to Oceans.  In: Myers, N., ed., The Gaia Atlas of Planet Management. Octopus, London, UK, and University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.


Safina, C.  2005.  Introduction to Oceans.  In: Myers, N., ed., The Gaia Atlas of Planet Management. Octopus, London, UK, and University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.


Safina, C., E.L. Gilman, and W. J. Nichols. 2005. Twine and the Ancient Mariners; Seabirds, Turtles, and Interactions with Fishing Gear in the North Pacific. In: Gunyup, S., ed., State of the Wild 2006. Island Press, Washington, DC.

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Seminoff, J.A. and W.J. Nichols. 2006. Sea Turtles and the Alto Golfo: A Struggle for Survival. In: Felger, R.S. and B. Broyles, eds., Dry Borders. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, UT.

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Safina, C. 2008. Let Each Tongue Speak and Every Heart Feel; Communicating Science. Pp 177-186 in: M. Benjamin, Editor. A Passion For This Earth. Graystone Books.


Safina, C. 2008. Introduction. In: Albatross; Their World, Their Ways, by Tui De Roy, M. Jones, J. Fitter. Bateman, Aukland, NZ.


Mitigating Impacts of Natural Hazards on Fishery Ecosystems, (proceedings of the American Fisheries Society/Sea Grant Symposium), edited by Katherine McLaughlin, 2008.

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Safina, C. and M. J. Hardt. 2009. The Role of the Natural Sciences in sparking an environmental ethic. In S. Kellert and G Speth, eds: The Coming Transformation; Values to Sustain Human and Natural Communities. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.


Safina, C. and M. J. Hardt. 2011. The Relationship between Science and Ocean Policy. In: V. Christensen, Editor. Ecosystem Approaches to Fisheries – A Global perspective. Cambridge University Press

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Magazine & Newspaper Articles:


Lee, M. 1990. Fishing for the Future. Audubon Science Quarterly. February.


Safina, C. 1991. Fish are Wildlife, Too. Syndicated through Los Angeles Times.


Lee, M. 1995. What You Can Do: Citizen Action on the Magnuson Fisheries Conservation and Management ActAquaticus 24(2).


Safina, C. 1995. The World’s Imperiled Fish. Scientific American.  273(4): 46-53.

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Safina, C. and M. Lee.  March/April 1997.  A Storm is Brewing Over Our Seas.  Zoogoer.


Safina, C. 1998. Fish Market Mutiny. The New York Times. 14 April.

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Safina, C.  1998.  Song for the Swordfish.  Audubon.  May/June.

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Safina, C. 1998.  Excerpts from Song for the Blue Ocean.  Science.


Safina, C.  May/June 1998.  The Audubon Guide to Seafood.  Audubon.


Lee, M.  1999.  The Changing Face of Stewardship of Our Oceans.  Discover Diving. October.


Safina, C.  2000.  Imperfect Fishing Doomed the Crew.  Newsday.  August 10: A37.


Safina, C.  2001.  Albatross Wanderings.  Audubon.  January/February.

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Lee, M.  2002.  Choose Your Seafood Wisely.  Maui Outdoor Adventures.


Safina, C. 2003. Launching a Sea Ethic. Wild Earth. Winter 2002-2003: 2-5

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Nichols, W.J. 2003. The Turtle Thief, the Fisherman, and the Saint. Originally appeared inBaja Life: Summer. Updated in 2006.

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Safina, C. 2003. Ocean Is On The Line. Newsday and various other syndicate newspapers. 26 August.

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Brownstein, C., M. Lee and C. Safina.  2003.  Harnessing Consumer Power for Ocean Conservation.   Conservation Magazine. 

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Safina, C.  2003.  The Soul Who Swims.  Patagonia Inc.  Fall.

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Safina, C. 2004. Serial field journal surveying sea turtle nests along the Pacific coast of Mexico, (March 22nd – April 5th, 2004) found at: POV Borders at PBS.com.

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Nichols, W.J. and C. Safina. 2004. Case Study: Lunch with a Turtle Poacher. Conservation in Practice 5(4): 30-36.


Nichols, W.J. and R. Rangel. 2004. EcoWatch: Join Baja California’s Growing Grassroots Sea Turtle Conservation Movement. Baja Life: Summer.

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Turnipseed, M.  2005.  A Diver’s Guide:  Ocean Friendly Seafood.  Sport Diver.


Safina, C.  2006.  Comes a Turtle, Comes a World.  Patagonia, Inc. Winter.

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Safina, C.  2007.  Moby Hope.  LEX Traveler (Lindblad Expeditions).  Summer.


Safina, C. 2007. Wings of the Albatross. National Geographic. Dec.: 86-113.

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Hardt, M.J. and C. Safina.  2008.  Covering Ocean Acidification:  Chemistry and Considerations.  Yale Forum on Climate Change and the Media.

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Hardt, M.J.  2008.  The Ocean Revealed.  Creation Care.

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Safina, C. and M.J. Hardt.  2008.  Carbon’s Burden on the World’s Oceans.  Yale Environment e360.

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Safina. C.  2008.  The Moral Climate.  Orion Magazine.  September

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Safina, C.  2008.  Sunset on Tiana Bay.  Edible East End.  Spring

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Safina, C.  2008.  Summertime Blues.  Edible East End.  Low Summer.

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Safina, C.  2008.  Tuna Wishing.  Edible East End.  High Summer.

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Safina, C.  and M.J. Hard.  2008.  Jellyburgers and Fries.  Edible East End.  Fall.

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Safina, C.  2008, December 1.  Toward A Sea Ethic.  The American Prospect: Oceans and Coasts Special Report, A21-23.

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Safina, C.  2008, December 8.  Regulators Are Pushing Bluefin Tuna to the Brink. Yale Environment360.

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Hardt, M.J.  2008.  Carbon Dioxide: The Curse of the Deep.  The American Prospect: Oceans and Coasts Special Report, A3.

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Safina, C and K. McLaughlin.  2008. The Evolution of Sushi.  Edible East End.  Winter.

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Safina, C. 2009. Darwinism Must Die So That Evolution Can Live. New York Times, Science Times, February 10, 2009.

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Safina, C.  2009, April 14.  Cease Sea Turtle Carnage. [Opinion].  Tampa Tribune.

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Safina, C and M. Hardt.  On World Oceans Day, consider the jellyfishburger and fries. Grist. June 4, 2010.

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Safina, C.  The Smaller the Fish, the Better. In The Seafood Eater’s Latest Conundrum: New York Times. June 9, 2009.

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McLaughlin, K and C. Safina.  2009. Don’t Eat the Turtles When You Order the Shrimp.

Conservation International Blog

Safina, C. 2009, July 9. Will there always be another fish in the sea? [Opinion].  Newsday.

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Safina, C. 2009. Note to Self: Connect. Edible East End. Low Summer.

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Safina, C. 2009. Throw Back the Big Ones. Edible East End. High Summer.

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Safina, C.  2010, January 14.  Taking too much out; putting too much in; That’s the classic problem with how we treat our oceans; a unified policy will help.  [Opinion].  Newsday.

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Safina C.  2010, January 23.  Save the salmon — and us.  [Opinion].  L.A. Times.

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Safina, C.  2010.  Sea Change.  Eating Well Magazine.  March/April, 2010: 3-14.

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McLaughlin, K and C. Safina.  2010.  Green Chefs, Blue Ocean.  Edible East End.  Spring 2010.

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Safina, C.  2010.  We are all Gulf victims now.  CNN invited OpEd.  June 3, 2010.

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Safina, C. 2010. Oil catastrophe wasn’t just an accident. CNN Invited OpEd. July 28, 2010.

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Safina, C.  2010.  Reporting Live from the Gulf.  Edible East End. June 2010.

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Safina, C and M. Hardt.  2010.  How Acidification Threatens Oceans from the Inside Out.Scientific American. August 2010.

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Safina, C.  2010.  Toxic Brew.  Special Report: The BP Gulf Oil Disaster: Audubon Magazine.  September 2010.

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Safina, C.  2010.  Right Time for the Right Whale?  Patagonia 2010 Holiday Catalogue.  November 2010.

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Safina, C.  2010.  How to jump-start energy policy reform.  The Washington Post.  December 21, 2010.

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Safina, C.  2011. Why are we using up the Earth?  CNN OpEd.  January 24, 2011.

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Scientific Papers & Reports:


Marine Sponges Bore Faster Due to the Effects of Climate Change

Duckworth & Peterson, 2011, Effects of seawater temperature and pH on the boring rates of the sponge Cliona celata in scallop shells, Blue Ocean Institute.

Sum: Original research by Blue Ocean staff scientist Alan Duckworth found that warmer and more acidic ocean waters increased the rate at which sponges can bore through scallop shells.

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Gilman, EL, S. Martin, J. Cook.  In Press.  Working with Hawaii longline fishers to abate fisheries bycatch.  In: M. Hall (ed).  Approaches to Working with Fishermen to Reduce Fisheries bycatch.


Safina, C.  1991.  (2nd edition 1992, 3rd edition 1997). A Primer on Conserving Marine Resources. New York, NY:  National Audubon Society.


Nemerson, D. and C. Safina. 1993. Apparent Errors in the National Marine Fisheries Service’s Bluefin Tuna Data Base.


Safina, C. 1993. Bluefin Tuna in the West Atlantic: Negligent Management, and the Making of an Endangered Species. Conservation Biology.  7: 229-234.

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Nemerson, D., Camhi, M., Safina, C.  1994.  “Seeking solutions: optimizing income, employment, and conservation in the US Atlantic bluefin tuna fishery.”  National Audubon Society.


Safina, C. 1994. Review of the National Research Council’s “An Assessment of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna.”  National Academy Press: Washington, DC.

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Safina, C. 1994. Where Have All The Fishes Gone? Issues in Science and Technology, Spring: 37-43.

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Lee, M. and C. Safina. 1995. Effects of Overfishing on Marine Biodiversity. Current: The Journal of Marine Education 13:5-9.

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Safina, C.  1995.  The World’s Imperiled Fish.  Scientific American.  273(5): 46 – 53.

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Safina, C. 1997. Fisheries Management Improving. Issues in Science and Technology. Spring: 13(3).

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Safina, C. 1997. World Fisheries: Depletion and Renewal. In: Meffe, G. and R. Carroll, eds., Principles of Conservation Biology. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA.


Hudson, E., G. Mace, J. Baillie, H. Hall, G.M. Mace, A. Punt, C. Roberts, Y. Sadovy, C. Safina, J. Sobel, and A. Vincent. 1997. Applying the IUCN Criteria to Marine Fish: Some Initial Guidelines. Species 28: 18-19.


Safina, C. 1998. Scorched Earth Fishing: Bottom Trawls. Issues in Science and Technology.Spring 14(3): 33-36.

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Nemerson, D., S. Berkeley, and C. Safina. 2000. Determining Spawning Site Fidelity in Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Thunnusthynnus: The use of size-frequency analysis to Test for the Presence of Migrant East Atlantic Bluefin Tuna on Gulf of Mexico Spawning Grounds. Fisheries Bulletin 98:118-126.


Safina, C. 2000. Individual Fishery Quotas: Allocation, Conservation, or Both? The National Fisheries Conservation Center, Points of View. 13 September.

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Gilman, E.L.  2001.  Keeping Albatross off the Hook in the North Pacific Ocean. World Bird Watch.  23(2): 14-16.


Safina, C.  2001.  Fish Conservation. In: Encyclopedia of Biological Diversity. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.


Safina, C.   2001.  Tuna Conservation. In: Block, B. A. and D. Stevens, eds., Tuna Ecological Physiology and Evolution. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.


Magnuson, J., C. Safina, and M. Sissenwine. 2001. Bluefin Tuna: Whose Fish are They Anyway? Science 293:1267-1268.

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Gilman, E.L. and H. Freifeld. 2003. Seabird Mortality in North Pacific Longline Fisheries. Endangered Species Update. 20(2): 35-46.

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Safina, C. 2003. Fishing Off the Deep End–And Back. Multinational Monitor. 24(9): 8-12.

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Safina, C. 2003.  The Continued Danger of Overfishing. Issues in Science and Technology.19(4): 49-51.

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Gilman E., N. Brothers, D. Kobayashi, S. Martin, J. Cook, J. Ray, G. Ching, and W. Woods. 2003. Performance Assessment of Underwater Setting Chutes, Side Setting, and Blue-Dyed Bait to Minimize Seabird Mortality in Hawaii Pelagic Longline Tuna and Swordfish Fisheries. Final Report. Submitted to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service in fulfillment of Endangered Species Act, Migratory Bird Treaty Act, and Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation Management Act permit conditions. Honolulu, HI.

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Gilman, E.L. 2003. Line-Setting Chute Evaluated for Hawaiian Fisheries. Pacific Seabirds.   29(2): 96.

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Safina, C.  2003.  Tuna Fisheries Around the World.  The Ecologist.  33(8): 47.

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Gilman, E.L. 2003. Keeping Seabirds off the Hook. Minimizing Incidental Capture of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries through Collaboration, Commercial Demonstrations, and Mainstreaming Best Practices. Presented at the conference, Managing Our Nation’s Marine Fisheries – Past, Present, and Future. Omni-Shoreham Hotel and Conference Center, Washington, D.C., 13-15 November 2003.


Gilman, E.L., C. Boggs, and N. Brothers. 2003. Performance Assessment of an Underwater Setting Chute to Mitigate Seabird Bycatch in the Hawaii Pelagic Longline Tuna Fishery. Ocean and Coastal Management. 46(11-12): 985-1010.

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Hays, G.C., A.C. Broderick, B.J. Godley, P. Luschi, and W.J. Nichols. 2003. Satellite Telemetry Reveals High Levels of Fishing Induced Mortality for Marine Turtles. Marine Ecological Progress Series 262: 305-309.


Safina, C. and S. Chasis.  2004.  Saving the Oceans.  Issues in Science and Technology. 21(1): 37 – 44.


Brownstein, C. and C. Safina. 2004.  Fish or Cut Bait: Solutions for Our Seas.  In: Heintzman, A., ed., Feeding the Future: From Fat to Famine, How to Solve the World’s Food Crises. House of Anansi Press, Toronto, Canada.

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Gilman, E.L. 2004. Assessment of Seabird Bycatch Mitigation Methods in Hawaii Pelagic Longline Fisheries. Proceedings of the Asia Regional Technical Workshop on Seabird Bycatch and Mitigation, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 12-15 January 2004. Wild Bird Federation of Taiwan and BirdLifeInternational.


Lopez-Castro, M.C., R. Carmona, and W.J. Nichols. 2004. Nesting Characteristics of the Olive Ridley Turtle, Lepidochelysolivacea, in CaboPulmo, Baja California Sur (2000). Marine Biology 145: 811-820.


Gilman, E.L. 2004. Assessment of Data Collection Protocols by the Hawaii Pelagic Longline Onboard Observer Program to Assess Effectiveness of Strategies to Reduce Seabird Bycatch and Comparison of Seabird BycatchRates for Hawaii Pelagic Longline Tuna Vessels Side-Setting, Stern-Setting and Using Blue-Dyed Bait, and Stern-Setting with No Seabird Avoidance Methods for the Period 15 August 2003 – 26 October 2004. Prepared for the Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. Honolulu, HI.


Gilman, E.L. 2004. Review of the State of Knowledge for Reducing Marine Turtle and Seabird Bycatch in Longline Gear. Prepared for the Japan Fisheries Research Agency, NOAA Fisheries, and Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council Workshop to Plan a Joint Japan-Hawaii Sea Turtle and Seabird Experiment to Reduce Bycatch and Injury in Pelagic Longline Fisheries. Honolulu, HI, 13-17 September 2004.


Gilman, E.L. 2004. Assessment of Strategies to Reduce Seabird Bycatch Employed by Hawaii Pelagic Longline Tuna Vessels and of Observer Program Data Collection Protocols. Prepared for the Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. Honolulu, HI.


Seminoff, J. A., A. Resendiz S. Hidalgo, B. Resendiz de Jimenez, and W. J. Nichols. 2004.Occurrence of Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Carettacaretta) in the Gulf of California, Mexico: Evidence of Life-history Variation in the Pacific Ocean. Herpetological Review 35:24-27.

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Hays, G.C., A.C. Broderick, B.J. Godley, P. Luschi, and W.J. Nichols. 2004. Tracking Turtles to Their Death. Marine Ecological Progress Series 283: 299-300.

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Turnipseed, M. and L. Liguori. 2005. Roles of Fishing Communities and Consumers in Reconciling Fisheries and Conservation. University of British Columbia Fisheries Centre Report 13(2): 62-66.

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Gilman, E.L., N. Brothers, and D.R. Kobayashi. 2005. Principles and Approaches to Abate Seabird By-catch in Longline Fisheries. Fish and Fisheries. 6(1): 35-49.

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Chuenpagdee, R., A. Bundy, C. Ainsworth, E.A. Buchary, W.W.L. Cheung,L.Dingerson, B. Ferris, K.M.F. Freire, G. Giannico, C. Holt, D. Lambert, L. Liguori, Y. Liu, D. Nandakumar, A. Poon, S. Salas, A. Salomon, J. Simms, M. Turnipseed, and C. Ware. 2005. Reconciling Fisheries with Conservation: Overview of Papers Presented at the 4th World Fisheries Congress. University of British Columbia Fisheries Centre Report. 13(2): 3-6.

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Norse, E.A., L.B. Crowder, K. Gjerde, D. Hyrenbach, C. Roberts, C. Safina, and M.E. Soule. 2005.  Place-based Ecosystem Management in the Open Ocean.  In: Norse, E.A. and L.B. Crowder, eds. Marine Conservation Biology: The Science of Maintaining the Sea’s Biodiversity. Island Press, Washington, DC.

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Dingerson, L., M. Turnipseed, and R. Chuenpagdee. 2005. Talking Management and Policy at the Scientific Meeting. University of British Columbia Fisheries Centre Report. 13(2): 56-61.

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Chuenpagdee, R., A. Bundy, A. Charles, P. Christie, L. Fanning, P. Gonzales, J. Houston, L. Liguori, D. Nandakumar, D. Ricard, M. Rudd, D. Pauly, S. Salas, J. Smith, R. Sumaila, M. Turnipseed, P. Tyedmers, D. VanderZwaag, and K. Zwanenburg. 2005. Creating a Positive Future for Fisheries and Coastal Communities. University of British Columbia Fisheries Centre Report. 13(2): 77-88.

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Safina, C., A. Rosenberg, R.A. Myers, T.J. Quinn II, and J.S. Collie. 2005. U.S. Ocean Fish Recovery: Staying the Course. Science. 309: 707-708.

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Swimmer, Y., E. Gilman. 2006.  Fishing Technology Gears up for Sea Turtle Conservation.  pp. 24 in R. Mast, L. Bailey, B. Hutchinson, (Eds).  The State of the World’s Sea Turtles SWOT Report Volume 1.  Burning Issues in Conservation.  Leatherback Sea Turtles of the World. State of the World’s Sea Turtles, Washington, D.C.

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Safina, C.  2006.  Fishing—to the bottom and back?  Insights on Law and Society, American  Bar Association.

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Gilman, E, E. Zollett, S. Beverly, H, Nakano, D. Shiode, K. Davis, P. Dalzell, I. Kinan.  2006.  Reducing sea turtle bycatch in pelagic longlinegear. Fish and Fisheries 7(1): 2-23.

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Gilman, E., N. Brothers, G. McPherson, P. Dalzell.  2006.  Review of cetacean interactions with longline gear. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management.  8(2): 215-223.


Gilman, E., N. Brothers, N. McPherson, P. Dalzel (etc.)  2006.  Technical Assistance for Hawaii Pelagic Longline Vessels to Change Deck Design and Fishing Practices to Side Set. Hawaii Longline Association, U.S. NOAA Fisheries Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center and Pacific Islands Regional Office, and Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. Honolulu, Hawaii.

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Gilman, E., Dalzell, P., Martin, S.  2006.  Fleet communication to abate fisheries bycatch.Marine Policy. 30(4): 360-366.


Gilman E., Brothers N., Kobayashi D.  2007.  Comparison of the efficacy of three seabird bycatch avoidance methods in Hawaii pelagic longline fisheries. Fisheries Science. 73(1).

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Gilman, E., S. Clarke, N. Brothers, J. Alfaro-Shigueto, J. Mandelman, J. Mangel, S. Petersen, S. Piovano, N. Thomson, P. Dalzell, M. Donoso, M. Goren, T. Werner.  2007.  Shark Depredation and Unwanted Bycatch in Pelagic Longline Fisheries. Western Pacific regional Fishery Managment Council.  Honolulu, HI.

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Safina, C. and D. Klinger. 2008. Collapse of Bluefin Tuna in the Western Atlantic.Conservation Biology. 22: 243–246.

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Soykan, C. U.,  J. E. Moore, R. Žydelis, L. B. Crowder, C. Safina, R. L. Lewison. 2008. Why Study Bycatch? An Introduction to the ESR Special Issue on Fisheries Bycatch. Endangered Species Research 5:91-102.

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Duckworth, A, et al.  2008, December 8.  Growth dynamics and bioactivity variation of the Mediterranean demosponges Agelas oroides (Agelasida,Agelasidae) and Petrosia ficiformis (Haplosclerida,Petrosiidae) Marine Ecology


Safina. C.  2009.  A Future for U.S. Fisheries.  Issues in Science and Technology.  Summer: 43 – 46.


Ferretti C, Vacca S, Marengo B, de Ciucis C, Domenicotti C, Duckworth A, Manconi R and Pronzato R. 2009. Growth dynamics and bioactivity variation of the Mediterranean demosponges Agelas oroides (Agelasida, Agelasidae) and Petrosia ficiformis(Haplosclerida, Petrosiidae). Marine Ecology 30: 327–336.


Lopez JV, Ranzer LK, Ledger A, Schoch B, Duckworth A, McCarthy PJ, Kerr RG. 2009. Comparison of Bacterial Diversity within the Coral Reef Sponge, Axinella corrugata, and the Encrusting Coral Erythropodium caribaeorum Proceedings of the 11th International Coral Reef Symposium, 1355-1359.


Duckworth AR. 2009. Farming Sponges to Supply Bioactive Metabolites and Bath Sponges: A Review. Marine Biotechnology 11: 669–679.


Luter HM and Duckworth AR. 2010. Influence of size and spatial competition on the bioactivity of coral reef sponges. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 38: 146–153.


Brothers N, Duckworth AR, Safina C and Gilman EL. 2010. Seabird Bycatch in Pelagic Longline Fisheries Is Grossly Underestimated when Using Only Haul Data PLoS ONE 5: 1-7.


Duckworth, A., C. Wolff and H. Luter.  2009, Dec 9.  Patterns of abundance and size across varying spatial scales for the coral reef sponge Coscinoderma matthewsi.  Marine Ecological Progress Series.  396: 27-33.

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